The UFO Iconoclast(s)

Sunday, May 31, 2009

ROSWELL METAL SCIENTIST: THE CURIOUS DR. CROSS by Anthony Bragalia

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[Installment Two of Tony Bragalia's probe of the Roswell incident's memory metal -- Installment One may be found below]

Recent investigation shows that a scientist for the acclaimed Battelle Memorial Institute -Dr. Howard C. Cross- likely directed the study of Roswell-like "memory metal" under a Wright Patterson Air Force Base contract soon after the crash event in 1947. Newly found details confirm that Cross led a dual life- as both a metallurgist and a secret government UFO researcher.

Memory metal (or shape-recovery) debris was reliably reported by many witnesses to the Roswell 1947 UFO crash. In an earlier article appearing on this site, Battelle was revealed to be the lab that Wright Patterson contracted to begin work on "Roswellian" memory metal studies in the months immediately after the crash. Wright Patterson has been claimed by many witnesses (and in a verified FBI memo written by agent Percy Wyly) to be the very base to which the Roswell debris was flown.

As outlined in the first article on the Battelle-Roswell Connection, the Battelle memory metal report's existence was confirmed by footnotes that were discovered appearing in metallurgical studies completed by other organizations working under Wright Patterson auspice. These footnotes cite a (still missing) 1949 Battelle "Second Progress Report" on the development of Nickel and Titanium alloy. This alloy comprises Nitinol, which remains the world's best-performing shape-recovery alloy. Tellingly, this was the first time that any metal alloy had ever been studied by the U.S. military that had the potential to "remember" its original shape. Based on the sections of the studies to which the footnotes refer, we know that the Battelle Second Progress Report related to the first-ever Phase Diagram on Nickel-Titanium, needed to make memory metal. All of the studies containing these footnotes to the missing Battelle memory report are themselves concerned with shape-recovery metals development and were completed after the "official" discovery of Nitinol.

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Under this Wright Patterson military contract, Battelle was to analyze and attempt new metallurgical processes on Nickel and Titanium which -when specially processed and combined- create Nitinol, a "morphing metal" similar to that reported at Roswell. Citations to what must necessarily exist -Battelle's "First Progress Report" on the memory metal- have never been located. The footnotes that were discovered to the missing Battelle's Second Progress Report on memory metal are fully detailed on page 274 of the newly expanded and released book, Witness to Roswell. Additional support was provided through information given by two Air Force Generals (including a former Wright Patterson Base Commander) as well as the confession of a high-level Battelle scientist who analyzed the debris.

In the previous article on this subject, it was revealed that it was Battelle's Dr. Howard Cross that likely directed these early, Roswell-inspired memory metal studies:

DR. CROSS WAS BATTELLE'S TITANIUM EXPERT. IN THE LATE 1940s, DR. CROSS WAS "FEEDING" TECHNICAL INFORMATION ON TITANIUM (WHICH IS REQUIRED TO MAKE MEMORY METAL) TO THE U.S. NAVAL LAB. THIS IS THE VERY LAB WHERE NITINOL MEMORY METAL WAS SAID TO BE "OFFICIALLY" DISCOVERED SOME YEARS LATER.

A brief reference found in a decades-old government report shows that a technical summary report entitled "Titanium Base Alloys" was authored by Battelle's metallurgist Dr. Howard Clinton Cross. The paper was presented by him to the Office of Naval Research in December 1948. The Office of Naval Research is the very place where the "memory metal" Nitinol (a Nickel and Titanium alloy) would be "discovered" over a decade later! Titanium (in its purest possible form) is required in combination with Nickel to make Nitinol. Titanium was an important element to Dr. Cross- and his organization was experimenting with combining it with Nickel- in the months immediately following the Roswell crash.

Other details about Dr. Cross reveal that he had a very curious background. Cross helped to direct Battelle's metals alloy research in the late 1940s. For many years, according to studies he authored, he conducted research work in various materials science and engineering areas, including Titanium. But strangely, he also helped to direct Battelle's USAF-sponsored Project Blue Book UFO research in the early 1950s. Other information that is detailed below shows that after the Roswell Incident, Cross worked quietly -but very closely- with the heads of various departments of the U.S. government on various aspects of the UFO phenomena.

Why would a materials engineer studying exotic alloys in 1948 later help to lead Battelle's government-funded studies on Flying Saucers? It is likely this is because Dr. Cross had studied the Roswell morphing metal . He held technical knowledge about the craft's construction and was given security clearances that enabled him to become a valuable asset to US military and intelligence in analyzing and investigating especially complex UFO cases. Newly developed information reveals that Dr. Cross was far more than a "mere metallurgist" who worked on Titanium alloys. Though Cross is a person about whom information is difficult to gain (and it is now understood why this is so) his name does "pop up" in some very strange places. The Battelle metallurgist was of such importance that he was able to deal freely with the heads of the U.S. Office of Naval Research, the CIA and Air Force Intelligence. His dual life and his close relationships with the uppermost echelons of the United States government on the UFO matter post-Roswell are only evident today in hindsight:

CROSS LIKELY WORKED ON USAF PROJECT BLUE BOOK REPORT NO. 14 AND OTHER GOVERNMENT UFO STUDIES

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Cross authored a January 9, 1953 memo (stamped Secret in red ink) to Wright Patterson Air Force Base's Colonel Miles E. Goll. Goll was at the time the head of Intelligence Analysis for the Air Materiel Command. In it, Cross makes clear he had authority to speak in an official capacity on behalf of Battelle about their UFO work for the government. In the memo, Cross insisted that Wright Patterson delay the work of the CIA's UFO study group, the Robertson Panel. Cross wanted to first have Battelle complete its Air Force commissioned statistical study on UFOs, later known as Project Blue Book "Report No. 14." The CIA itself even consulted with Cross and concurred with him on the need for delay. Ultimately though, both the CIA and Battelle were overruled by the Air Force. Information now being developed lends support that it was Battelle that also authored the (missing) Project Blue Book Report No. 13- the report number immediately preceding Battelle's confirmed authorship of Blue Book's "Report No. 14." Some believe that it is the missing Blue Book Report 13 that details the debris discovered at Roswell.

CROSS WAS OBSESSIVELY SECRET ABOUT HIS WORK

Cross was obsessive about confidentialty and did not want the Battelle organization mentioned by name in its Blue Book UFO studies for Wright Patterson. He wanted secret authorship and requested that Battelle's name not be used. Project Bluebook leader Edward Ruppelt -in a book he authored years later- referred to Battelle's UFO studies only as "Project Bear." Again, though a Battelle leader and active in USAF UFO studies, history has managed to protect Dr. Cross. Very little is publicy available about this secretive man- and now we know why. Cross even obfuscated his name. In both his metallurgical work -and his work for government UFO studies- he frequently identified himself variously as "H.C. Cross," "Howard Cross," or simply as "Dr. Cross." Signatures or pictures of Dr. Cross have never been located.

CROSS AUTHORED THE MYSTERIOUS "PENTACLE" UFO MEMO TO WRIGHT PATTERSON

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(Click here to see Pentacle memo full size)

Decades after it was written in 1953, a memo marked "Secret" was discovered under unusual circumstances. It is sometimes called the "Pentacle" memo and was written by Battelle's Howard Cross. Dr. Cross directed this letter to a "Colonel Miles Goll" of Air Materiel Command. In the memo, Cross urged the Air Force to consider a strange UFO-related operation. Cross only typed his name in closing the document, but did not sign it- and then only as "H.C. Cross." In this document, Dr. Cross outlined a scheme for the Air Force to "stage" the appearance of "artificial" UFOs. Cross wanted to see how target populations would report their "sightings" - and the impact that these UFOs would have on them. There is no evidence that this was done. We can now see that Dr. Cross was not only directing metals studies at Battelle (and conducting statistical analysis of UFO studies for Blue Book) but he was even addressing the psychological and observational aspects of the phenomena with Air Force Intelligence. Cross was obviously highly knowlegable about many facets of the UFO issue- which is very curious given that he was officially a "mere metallurgist."

In 1968, noted U.S. Air Force UFO study scientist Dr. J. Allen Hynek approached Dr. Cross about the memo, which had been brought to Hynek's attention. Cross agreed to meet alone with Hynek to discuss it, but instead Cross brought with him four "colleagues." When Hynek started reading from his notes about the memo, Cross defiantly snatched the paper out of Hynek's hands and chastised Hynek that it was an "old story." Cross clearly did not want to discuss the matter and he did not return the notes to Hynek. Hynek -rather meek- was stunned. Cross was an expert in the physics of metals. His authority and involvement in far-ranging UFO study is impossible to comprehend - unless he had prior UFO related work experience, perhaps studying the materials of construction of UFO's.

CROSS WORKED CLOSELY ON UFOS WITH THE HEAD OF WRIGHT PATTERSON'S CHIEF OF ANALYSIS

"Colonel Miles Goll" is the individual to whom Cross authored the aforementioned "Pentacle" memo on UFOs. Miles Goll is key to the Roswell mystery. Goll -very tellingly- was Chief of Analysis for the highly-classified "T-2" unit at Wright's Air Materiel Command. Goll's group had a mission to provide technical intelligence and analysis of fallen enemy aircraft or other recovered technologies with defense applications. Additionally, they were to prevent strategical, tactical or technological "surprise." They were to provide any intelligence that was gathered to the engineering section to use in attempts to reverse-engineer or replicate such technology. They were to also faciltate the transfer of enemy aircraft technology to U.S. defense contractors. Finally, they provided counter-intelligence to obfuscate and confuse all of these activities. One is almost forced to think that if Roswell was a UFO related event, that Goll's group -the one working with Battelle's Dr. Cross- was surely involved. More about Battelle's "Wright Patterson Paymasters" will be detailed in a forthcoming article.

CROSS HAD A WORKING RELATIONSHIP WITH THE CIA CHIEF OF SCIENTIFIC INTELLIGENCE ABOUT UFOS

The Battelle metallurgist had such "clout" that he was visited by the CIA Chief Of Scientific Intelligence, H. Marshall Chadwell, on official matters. According to archived records of the now-defunct UFO study group NICAP, we find the notation: "Dec 12, 1952, CIA/OSI Chief Dr. H. Marshall Chadwell, Dr. HP Robertston and Fred Durant visit Project Blue Book and Battelle's Dr. Howard Cross." Those familiar with official government UFO studies such as Blue Book and the Robertson Panel will recognize the above names- except the name Dr. Cross.

CROSS WAS CLOSELY ASSOCIATED WITH THE PREDECESSOR TO NASA

Dr. Vannevar Bush was at one time chair of NACA, the predecessor organization to NASA. Cross likely worked with Bush. Available documents show that Cross consulted with NACA on potential space flight materials. Vannevar Bush is implicated in a November 1952 memo from government engineer Wilbert Smith of Canada: "Their modus operandi are unknown but concentrated effort is being made by a small group headed up by Vannevar Bush." Smith learned this from Dr. Robert Sarbacher, who confirmed this to a researcher in 1985. Sarbacher was a leading US physicist who was a DOD consultant in the 1950s. In forthcoming articles, it will be shown that Battelle moved the memory metal research to NASA. Today, NASA is a leader in the development of shape-recovery technologies, including for future spacecraft applications.

CROSS OBSERVED THE SKIES FOR UFOS.

He had his own UFO sighting in 1951. Buried in the Project Blue Book files (and categorized as an "unknown") there is a mention that "Howard Cross of Battelle Memorial Institute" observed an unusual "bright oval with clipped tail" on October 2 at Columbus, OH. Cross told the Air Force that it "flew straight and level, fading into the distance after 1 minute."

U.S. NAVAL COMMANDER SUMMONED CROSS TO INVESTIGATE FALLEN DEBRIS DURING THE 1952 UFO "FLAP"

According to news articles and further research by the late Todd Zechel, U.S. Naval Commander Alvin Moore had recovered an unusual "broken-off" cylinder object from his property in suburban DC during the famous 1952 UFO flap. Moore told Zechel that he took the material to associates at the National Bureau of Standards (NBS.) He said that those scientists and CIA scientists, as well as a scientist from Battelle, examined the debris piece. That scientist was none other than Dr. Howard Cross. Moore said, "Only Howard Cross of Battelle for the USAF, said that he thought it could be a piece from an open hearth furnace- which made no sense since it had come crashing from the sky." The piece was later determined to be terrestrial, but of indeterminate manufacture. Cross was a Battelle expert in both metals and UFOs. He had gained unique metallurgical expertise (due to his exposure to the Roswell debris) that the government felt was valuable in applying to other possible UFO crashes.

CROSS MANAGED THE VERY SCIENTIST WHO AUTHORED BATTELLE'S "MISSING" PROGRESS REPORTS ON MEMORY METAL IN THE LATE 1940s

Perhaps the most telling item about Dr. Cross is that it has been confirmed that he worked closely -and co-authored with- Battelle scientist L.W. Eastwood. Copies of papers that Dr. Cross and L.W. Eastwood wrote together are on file and available for review. Incredibly, it is L.W. Eastwood that is one of the authors (along with Craighead and Fawn) of Battelle's missing reports to Wright Patterson in the late 1940s on the Nickel Titanium memory metal (Nitinol.) Information available on Dr. Cross is very scarce, but in one metals study located, Cross is referred to by the title "Research Director." Given this -and all that we now know about him- it may be that Dr. Cross was the manager of the memory metal scientists.

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Future articles will explore:

- Why the "official history" of Nitinol is riddled with holes and deficiencies
- Government studies on "the mind" and its relationship to morphing metal
- How Battelle, Military Intelligence and NASA direct shape-recovery alloy research today
- The hidden meaning of "morphing" and why it is vital to understanding the UFO phenomena

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N.B. Dr. Howard Cross died in 1992. Through his legacy, we further the connection between Battelle and Roswell. But Battelle has demonstrated a troubling pattern. When it comes to Battelle's reports relating to both the UFO subject and to their early memory metals work - they are "missing."

11 Comments:

  • In reference to this quote:

    "Cross even obfuscated his name. ...he frequently identified himself variously as "H.C. Cross," "Howard Cross," or simply as "Dr. Cross.""How is that obfuscation? Those are all perfectly valid ways to display ones name. I often switch between my full name, or just a first initial, or whatever.

    And is there a reference for the Hynek story concerning the "Pentacle Memo"?

    By Blogger Gareth, at Monday, June 01, 2009  

  • Tony Bragalia is trying to do a 'Menzel' on Howard Cross. Recall that after the MJ-12 papers first appeared Stan Friedman was at great pains to show how Dr Donald Menzel (one of the MJ-12 members) had led a double life, similar to that now claimed by Bragalia for Dr Cross. Friedman interpreted this as meaning that Dr Menzel was indeed part of the great Roswell deception. The difference is that Menzel was a professional astronomer whereas Cross was a metallurgist. Menzel knew Japanese, he knew all about cryptography; therefore he was the perfect scientist to read those Roswell markings and decipher them. Menzel's connections with the intelligence services were further 'proof' of his Roswell involvement, and so on.

    Now Dr Cross is said to be involved in a similar manner, despite there being no evidence whatever that he or Battelle ever recieved or analysed any Roswell debris (or any other UFO crash debris).

    I recommend Tony look at the article in IUR for May-June 1993 by Jennie Zeidman & Mark Rodeghier where they dissect Cross's letter, which was intended for Blue Book as well. This article also contains a photo of Cross and other Battelle employees

    By Blogger cda, at Monday, June 01, 2009  

  • Gareth and CDA:

    You guys are soooo skeptical [snicker].

    Mr. Bragalia will provide more "circumstantial" evidence for the hypothesis that some metal from the Roswell "crash" (or debris) was exotic.

    We like Nick Redfern's suggestion that Roswell's ET proponents are so entrenched in their alien belief that other options are discarded, and this has mucked up the whole Roswell episode.

    Mr. Bragalia's continuing probe doesn't necessarily have to support the extraterrestrial visitation idea, in my estimation.

    The esoteric metal that Battelle got their hands on may have been part of a Naval experiment that went awry in Roswell.

    There is a raft of clues that Roswell and the Kenneth Arnold sighting are related, and both involved the U.S. Navy.

    But that for an upcoming post...from the RRRGroup.

    By Blogger RRRGroup, at Monday, June 01, 2009  

  • Dear Tony,
    Thanks for containing the search despite the crowd that holds on to the belief that all this means nothing. Anything but ETs is there mantra.
    So far there is an awful lot of evidence that means nothing to these people. Circumstantial evidence has put many a guilty person away. We find a continuing stream of circumstantial evidence that his was a object unknown to those who found it. Brad Sparks changed his mind on Roswell and in his presentation he mention how a good avenue of research to pursue would be the supporting research that must have been carried out by research labs under contract by the government. I think you have struck it rich on one. There must be more but because of the high state of security around this and the length of time it will be difficult finds these trails.

    Ever since the beginning of these investigations important items have been missing weather it was written evidence about Roswell, Bluebook or evidence the Airforce collected from good credible UFO witnesses, somehow they either disappeared into the either or even lost "in a fire".
    But you will still get these people who need obsessively not to have this be ET. They are in fact able and willing to overlook anything or define anything by perusing any small avenue of unclear intent by the researcher to try and discredit the whole work. Keep up the good work Tony. As you know from history when you start to search for the truth you always create enemies along the way.
    Joe Capp
    UFO Media Matters
    Non-Commercial Blog

    By Blogger Phyllis, at Monday, June 01, 2009  

  • Joe

    You said:

    "...you will still get these people who need obsessively not to have this be ET."

    Personally, I've never found this to be the case - aside from with the exception of 1 or 2 of the real rabid skeptics.

    As you know, I am firmly of the opinion that there is a real UFO mystery that falls outside of human-hands.

    I'm just not convinced that evidence of the real UFO mystery crashed at Roswell.

    But there are many good UFO reports clearly indicating a presence of "something" in our midst.

    Same for the late Karl Pflock: he came to accept that Roswell wasn't ET, but he was a big champion of the Betty and Berney Hill case as being genuine.

    Paul Kimball too: a Roswell skeptic, but who put together a "best evidence" show on unexplained UFO cases that may well have ET origins.

    I think a lot of people assume (consciously or otherwise) that if you are a Roswell skeptic, you are also a UFO skeptic, when that's actually not so.

    By Blogger Nick Redfern, at Monday, June 01, 2009  

  • That letter from Howard Cross to Blue Book specifically states that they (Battelle) wanted to encourage the AF to get hold of real physical evidence. He uses the term "reliable physical data". Hardly the sort of thing you would write if you had such data in your hands from 5 years before, i.e. from Roswell.
    My conclusion is that Battelle had no such data in their hands, and never had.

    [Stan Friedman's response would be that Cross did not mention Roswell in his memo as the
    latter was only 'secret' and therefore could not contain any reference to top secret matters!]

    Titanium research by Battelle? Naturally. But again, there is no established connection with Roswell, whether ET or otherwise.

    Still, let us await further revelations.

    By Blogger cda, at Monday, June 01, 2009  

  • I think CDA makes a lot of interesting points that should be considered in both his comments, although we shouldn't throw out the Cross story with the bathwater so-to-speak just because Friedman has made similar claims. I think there is enough suspicion around Cross to at least investigate his role further in this and other related stories.

    One beef I have with the article:

    "In this document, Dr. Cross outlined a scheme for the Air Force to "stage" the appearance of "artificial" UFOs."

    After reading the document myself, it appeared he wasn't trying to set up an artificial UFO. The document states that there are some areas in the United States that are UFO hotspots (as they are called now) which would be perfect to stake out and meticulously check everything to understand what they could about sightings. What they did say about hoaxes was that they would be easily identified, NOT that they were trying to create them themselves. To me it sounds like an effort to scientifically investigate the UFO phenomenon, not to test how well they could fake one.

    By Blogger armakan01, at Monday, June 01, 2009  

  • Anthony Bragalia replies to Armakan01:

    You are right about the Cross memo interpretation...though others have seen its meaning differently.

    Either way, though, the point made:

    Cross was into UFO metals, statistical analysis of sightings and observational related study. A very involved-in-UFOs Dr. Cross indeed...

    TB

    By Blogger RRRGroup, at Monday, June 01, 2009  

  • U.S. Generals Speak About Roswell


    …I am almost completely convinced that the object that crashed near Roswell was composed of materials not common on Earth.
    Maj. Gen. Kenner F. Hertford, U.S. Army [Ret.]

    They knew they had something new in their hands. The metal and material was unknown to anyone I talked to. A couple of guys thought it might be Russian, but the overall consensus was that the pieces were from space.
    Brig. Gen. Arthur E. Exon, U.S. Air Force [Ret.]
    Former Base Commander, Wright-Patterson AFB

    It was a cover story – the balloon part of it. That part of it was, in fact, the story we were told to give to the public and the press, and that was it. The actual remnants …whatever happened to them, I have no knowledge.
    Brig. Gen. Thomas J. DuBose, U.S. Air Force [Ret.]
    Former Chief of Staff to Gen. Roger Ramey in 1947

    It was the biggest lie they [the Air Force] ever made me tell …It [the Roswell crash wreckage] was out of this world!
    Brig. Gen. Roger M. Ramey, U.S. Air Force [Ret.]
    Commanding Officer, 8th Air Force, Ft. Worth, TX
    in 1947 and the architect of the Roswell cover-up

    It was the strangest thing I ever saw.
    Gen. William H. Blanchard, Vice Chief of Staff,U.S. Air Force [Ret.],
    Commanding Officer, 509th Bomb Group
    Roswell Army Air Field, 1947

    At first they thought it was Russian. Then they realized it wasn’t.
    Brig. Gen. Woodrow Swancutt, U.S. Air Force [Ret.]
    Pilot, 509th Bomb Group, Roswell Army Air Field, 1947

    Roswell has long been a point of great interest to me … When I asked Gen. Curtis LeMay for permission to see it [the Roswell material at Wright-Patterson AFB], he told me, ‘Not only no, but hell, no! And if you ask again, I’ll have you court martialed!’”
    U.S. Senator Barry M. Goldwater, Maj. Gen. U.S.A.F. [Ret.]

    When I went to work for the C.I.A., one of the first things I did was to look for the Roswell file, but it was missing.
    Maj. Gen. Harry N. Cordes, U.S. Air Force [Ret.]
    Pilot, 509th Bomb Group, Roswell Army Air Field, 1947
    U-2 Pilot who trained Francis Gary Powers

    I have been informed by higher officers at the Pentagon that there still exists an ABOVE TOP SECRET, UFO project. That’s where your Roswell file is.
    Brig. Gen. Richard Mitchell, U.S. Army [Ret.]

    By Blogger Tarzan, at Tuesday, June 02, 2009  

  • Which Tarzan is this? There have been several over the last 85 years.

    By Blogger cda, at Tuesday, June 02, 2009  

  • CDA:

    Well it can't be Johnny Weissmuller (dead) or Ron Ely (really retired), so maybe it's Tony Hawk...

    RR

    By Blogger RRRGroup, at Tuesday, June 02, 2009  

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